Sir Stuart Etherington, Chief Executive, NCVO The 2012 Almanac once again aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the scope and changing nature of civil society. It is published amidst ongoing confusion about the myriad of organisations that lie between the state, the market and the household. Yet the diversity – untidiness, even – […]

About the Almanac

First published in 1996 as the UK Voluntary Sector Statistical Almanac, the 2012 edition is the reference publication for anybody interested in the voluntary sector and its role in civil society. Widely cited by the media, government policy makers and sector leaders, the Almanac offers a definitive overview of the voluntary sector’s scope and characteristics, enhanced by analysis of long-term trends.

Why are our estimates lower than the Charity Commission’s figures?

Compared to the Charity Commission’s register, which covers England and Wales, we report more organisations but less income. To produce estimates of the size of the UK voluntary sector, we apply a “general charities” definition to the register of charities and similar registers covering Scotland and Northern Ireland. Developed by the Office for National Statistics, the […]

What is civil society?

What should we call the activities and organisations that inhabit the space between the state, businesses and individuals? Few, if any, issues cause so much dissatisfaction and disagreement amongst those working in that diverse universe of organisations sometimes referred to as the third sector, or the voluntary and community sector, or the NGO sector, or the nonprofit sector. And so […]

What are the financial resources of civil society?

The economically important types of civil society organisation Civil society organisations have an annual combined income of £170.4 billion. Voluntary  organisations make up the largest part of civil society in financial terms – accounting for the largest share of income, expenditure and assets. Employee owned businesses (with an estimated income of £30 billion), universities (£26.7 billion) and co-operatives (£24.2 billion) are the […]

How many people work in civil society?

Paid staff An estimated 2.0 million people are employed within civil society organisations falling within the civil society definition used in this Almanac. This is equivalent to 7% of the total UK workforce and is larger than the NHS workforce (1.4 million people, the UK’s single largest employer). When compared to an industry sector, it is clear that civil society […]

How many beneficiaries and members do civil society organisations have?

 How many people benefit? Civil society organisations in the UK exist to support a wide range of beneficiary groups, including people from the UK and across the world, animals and the environment. This means that trying to accurately estimate how many people benefit is challenging, and virtually impossible. Many UK-based organisations have a global reach, […]

How has civil society changed?

How many civil society organisations are there? We estimate there are around 900,000 civil society organisations in the UK. To obtain this estimate, data from a variety of sources was compiled together. Tracking the number of organisations over time is challenging, due to the variety of sources and changes to methodology. This figure consists of […]

What is the relationship between social enterprise and civil society?

As is the case with civil society, the scope of social enterprise varies considerably depending how it is defined. The definition adopted by the UK government (BIS) defines social enterprises as those businesses that self-identify as a social enterprise and as a “business with primarily social or environmental objectives, whose surpluses are principally re-invested for […]

Will public service mutuals reshape civil society?

The organisations that occupy the civil society space have traditionally had common characteristics and aims: formal, self-governing, non-profit distributing, with an element of voluntarism and independence from the state. But this distinctiveness is increasingly being challenged: the boundaries between civil society, the state and the market are blurring. Nowhere is this clearer than in the […]

What do we mean by the voluntary sector?

In our review of civil society in section 1 we highlighted that civil society is much contested: not everyone agrees what it is, or in the case of civil society associations, what is ‘in’. Furthermore, our knowledge of the characteristics and dynamics of civil society remains in its infancy. In contrast, we know much more […]

How many voluntary organisations are active in the UK?

In our definition of the voluntary sector there were over 160,000 active organisations in the UK in 2009/10. Active organisations are those that have submitted an annual return in the last 3 years. In the UK there are 2.6 voluntary organisations for every thousand people. This is equivalent to one voluntary organisation for every 380 people. This estimate does not include […]

How big is a typical voluntary organisation?

The majority of the UK’s voluntary organisations are very small: just under 88,000 (54% of the ‘population’) have an annual income of less than £10,000, and we have categorised these as micro. Many are small: a further 51,000 (31%) have an income of less than £100,000. However, these small and micro organisations account for 5.5% of the sector’s total […]

What major voluntary organisations have we excluded from our analysis?

The Charity Commission’s register of charities contains 14,900 entities with a combined income of £22.5 billion that do not fall into our general charities definition (see question 10). The majority are excluded because they are independent schools or universities, or because they are religious organisations whose primary purpose is the promotion of religion. They include many organisations that the public […]

Is the number of voluntary organisations increasing?

Since the register of charities was launched in the 1960s, the number of charities has grown steadily, with at least 2,500 organisations registered every year. In 2010, 4,448 new general charities were registered. Both registrations and removals are unrelated to economic conditions: the peaks and troughs shown are the result of administrative action by the […]

Which are the largest voluntary organisations in the UK?

The sector’s spending power largely resides with large and major voluntary organisations: over three quarters of total current expenditure (£27.7 billion) is spent by 4,558 organisations (or 3% of organisations). The Wellcome Trust, with an expenditure of £799.8 million, is the largest organisation in our definition of the sector. Question 12 identifies the 10 largest […]

Are there more voluntary organisations in some parts of the UK than in others?

The map highlights the number of voluntary organisations per thousand people for local authorities in England and Wales. The geographies demonstrated here are complex and uneven, and voluntary organisations form only part of the civil society picture; other types of civil society organisation may have a different distribution. On average in England and Wales there […]

What activities does the voluntary sector undertake?

Voluntary organisations conduct a wide range of activities, which are often grouped into sub-sectors or industries. The International Classification of Non-profit Organisations (ICNPO) is designed for voluntary organisations and other non-profit groups, and so is the most useful for comparisons between groups of organisations. In reality many organisations undertake multiple activities (e.g. housing and advice), but […]

Who and what benefits from the work of the voluntary sector?

Who benefits? Voluntary organisations in the UK exist to assist a wide range of beneficiary groups, covering all demographic groups within the UK population, as well as the environment, animals and people across the world. The most popular beneficiary group is children and young people (58%); organisations that benefit them include the 28,000 playgroups, nurseries, […]

What is the voluntary sector’s involvement in public service delivery?

Although contracting out to voluntary organisations began in earnest in the mid-1980s, the sector’s involvement in public service delivery has grown rapidly in recent years in both scale and scope, fuelled by policy goals of a mixed economy of providers and meeting the increasing needs (and demands) of an ageing, atomised population. Over the period […]

How do voluntary organisations work with those they support?

Voluntary organisations support their beneficiaries in a number of ways, from direct monetary aid, to provision of services or facilities, to enabling other organisations. Almost one-third of the sector (31%) makes grants to voluntary bodies, which can then support their beneficiaries (see question 20 for more information on grant-making voluntary organisations). Similarly, 30% of the sector operates by providing services to their […]

What do we know about grant-making voluntary organisations in the UK?

Who are grants made to? In 2003/04, 52% of grants were made to other voluntary organisations, 43% to statutory organisations (mainly research with universities and support for schools and hospitals), 4% in direct grants to individuals and 1% to other institutions. If these figures are applied to the total grants made in 2009/10, £2.4 billion […]

What is the voluntary sector’s total income and expenditure?

The total income of voluntary organisations in 2009/10 was £36.7 billion. We estimate £2.1 billion of total income is received from other grant-making organisations in the sector and is arguably double-counting of income (See question 20 for further information). A net £34.5 billion is generated from sources outside of the sector. In the same year […]

How has the sector’s income and expenditure changed?

The voluntary sector at the end of the last decade looked a great deal larger than it did at the beginning. Both income and expenditure have grown considerably in cash terms; income increased from £20.7 billion in 2000/01 to £36.7 billion in 2009/10 (77%), and expenditure increased from £19.8 billion in 2000/01 to £36.3 billion […]

What impact did the recession have upon the voluntary sector?

During 2008 and 2009 the UK experienced the longest post-war recession on record with six consecutive quarters of contraction. This most immediately and visibly impacted upon the private sector. But subsequent reductions in public spending amidst a period of low growth have increasingly impacted upon the public and voluntary sectors. At the beginning of 2010, 59% of charities reported that […]

How big is the voluntary sector compared to the rest of the economy?

Voluntary sector contribution to the economy The contribution to the economy of different industries is measured by calculating their gross value added (GVA); which is an estimate of production or output, similar to Gross domestic product (GDP). Voluntary organisations are included in Office for National Statistics (ONS) estimates, but ‘Nonprofit Institutions Serving Households’ (NPISH) are […]

How is the voluntary sector’s income distributed?

Large and major organisations receive just over three quarters (77%) of the sector’s income. In fact, it is still generally the 474 major charities (0.3%) that shape public and media perception of the sector and generate much of its formal resources (46%). The large number (88,000) of micro organisations operates largely in a world of […]

What are the sector’s different sources and types of income?

>10% rise in income since 2008/09 Income relatively static since 2008/09 >10% fall in income since 2008/09

What is the sector’s most dominant source of income?

The voluntary sector receives income from two main sources: individuals and statutory bodies. Individuals are still the sector’s main source, providing £14.3 billion in 2009/10 (39% of total income) via donations and purchases. Contracts and grants from statutory bodies, worth £13.9 billion, generate almost as much of the sector’s income (38%). Together, statutory bodies and individuals account for just over three-quarters […]

Are smaller voluntary organisations more reliant than others upon particular sources of income?

The small and micro organisations that make up the vast majority of the sector are particularly reliant upon public support received through gifts and purchases (which includes membership dues). Almost two thirds (65%) of micro organisations’ income is from individuals; it is half of small organisations’ income. Whilst these organisations are less reliant upon government […]

Are some voluntary organisations more reliant than others upon particular sources of income?

The differing funding mixes of organisations – summarised here by an analysis of sub-sectors – implies that future changes in sector funding will not have the same impact across the sector. For example, employment and training organisations generate three-quarters of their income (75%) from statutory sources whilst law and advocacy organisations generate nearly six-tenths of […]

How diverse is the voluntary sector’s income?

Nearly half of all voluntary sector organisations (45%) receive the majority of their funding from individuals. Looking more closely, nearly one-fifth of all organisations (17%) receive the majority of their income from individuals’ donations whilst for another 12% this is through fundraising (which charity accounts report separately). For just over one in ten organisations (11%), […]

What is the voluntary sector’s most important type of income?

The voluntary sector’s income can be classified into three types: voluntary income, earned income and investment income (see question 26 for further information about these types). Since 2003/04, earned income has been the sector’s most important type of funding. In 2009/10 earned income accounted for over half (55%) of the sector’s total income equating to […]

What is driving the increase in earned income?

Earned income has increased by £9.5 billion in the nine years since 2000/01, a 90% increase. There are a number of factors driving this. Government policies have helped create the conditions for the sector to increase its involvement in service provision. Earned income from statutory sources – ‘contracting’ – has increased by 157% since 2000/01, and now stands at £10.9 […]

What are the main trends in statutory funding?

Please visit the Almanac 2017 for the latest information on statutory funding Where does the sector’s statutory funding come from? Income from statutory sources totalled £13.9 billion in 2009/10. This includes resources from UK central, local and devolved administrations, international bodies, and overseas governments. Total income from statutory sources has increased by 61% in real terms from […]

How are public sector spending cuts affecting the voluntary sector?

What cuts have happened so far? There is no one comprehensive source of information about the cuts so far. The Voluntary Sector Cuts website, a collaboration between 25 voluntary sector infrastructure organisations is one way for voluntary organisations to share their experience of cuts. Launched in January 2011, by January 2012, 509 cuts had been […]

What are the main trends in charitable giving?

YOU ARE VIEWING AN OUT OF DATE VERSION OF THIS PAGE Click here for the updated version of this page in the Almanac 2017   Giving to charity manifests itself in many different ways: from giving loose change to monthly direct debits; from giving to the homeless to international non-governmental organisations. Not all charitable giving is […]

What are the main trends in Lottery funding?

How is National Lottery funding distributed? Funds from the National Lottery provide a significant source of income for the UK voluntary sector. There are currently 13 independent distributing bodies responsible for distributing Lottery money to ‘good causes’. Five of these focus on sport (Sport England; Sport Scotland; Sport Northern Ireland; the Sports Council for Wales […]

What are the main trends in legacy funding?

How much does the voluntary sector receive in legacy income? Legacies can be defined as “an amount of money or property left to someone in a will”. Charitable legacies provide a vital and significant, if volatile, income stream for voluntary organisations in the UK. The voluntary sector received £1.8 billion in legacy income in 2009/10, […]

What are the main trends in investment income?

How much income is provided from the sector’s investments and cash holdings? Income from investments and cash balances totalled £2.4 billion in 2009/10, equivalent to 6.7% of total income. This is the lowest share of income from investments since the NCVO Almanac series began. Many organisations invest on a ‘total returns’ basis, which implies that […]

How much do organisations generate from their trading subsidiaries?

In 2009/10, 1,800 charities reported income from trading subsidiaries, totalling £566 million or 1.5% of total voluntary sector income. However, due to the treatment of subsidiaries in consolidated accounts, this figure should be treated as a minimum. Some organisations continue to report only the net contribution of trading subsidiaries which in turn implies we are […]

How much does the voluntary sector spend?

The voluntary sector’s total current expenditure in 2009/10 was £36.3 billion. Expenditure is split between four main activities: charitable activities, grant-making, the cost of generating funds and governance. These are explored in the expenditure section of the almanac.

How do voluntary organisations report their expenditure?

The charities Statement of Recommended Practice (SORP 2005) requires organisations with incomes over £100,000 to report their expenditure using activity-based costing and accrual accounting. Smaller charities mostly prepare receipts and payments accounts, and choose their own reporting categories. This means that comparing them with larger organisations is not perfect: different accounting treatments may therefore account […]

Do large and small voluntary organisations spend money on different types of activity?

Medium sized voluntary organisations, spend the largest proportion on charitable activities, with charitable activities accounting for nearly four-fifths (79%) of expenditure. These average figures reflect the distribution of grant-makers (a small number of large foundations and numerous small ‘pots of money’) and mid-sized ‘operating’ charities. Major organisations – the group that contains the large fundraising charities – unsurprisingly spends the highest […]

How is the voluntary sector’s expenditure distributed?

The delivery of social services accounts for a major proportion of the sector’s spending – 31,100 organisations spent £8.7 billion in 2009/10, an average of £279,000 per organisation. Research organisations (including large medical research funders like Cancer Research UK) had the highest average expenditure, of £796,000, spending £2.9 billion in total. The smallest sub-sectors by […]

How much does the voluntary sector spend on charitable activities, excluding grantmaking

Voluntary organisations spent £26.5 billion in 2009/10 carrying out their charitable activities, a figure which does not include grant-making. Whilst expenditure on charitable activities rose by £1.7 billion (7%) between 2007/08 and 2008/09, it was relatively static between 2008/09 and 2009/10 rising by just £200 million (1%). This might suggest organisations were beginning to control […]

How much does the voluntary sector spend on grant-making?

The voluntary sector spent £4.6 billion in 2009/10 (13% of its total expenditure) making grants to other voluntary organisations, individuals and statutory organisations. The level of grant making dropped sharply by 22% in 2008/09, but recovered in 2009/10 rising by 9%, although it was still £830 million less in real terms than in 2007/08. A […]

How much does the voluntary sector spend on fundraising and publicity?

Voluntary organisations spent £4.1 billion on generating funds in 2009/10, £3.2 billion of which was spent on fundraising and publicity costs. These include the cost of asking for donations, and the cost of trading to raise funds. The remainder was spent on managing investments (£250 million) and trading subsidiary costs (£700 million), such as the […]

What can the sector’s balance sheet tell us about its financial health?

A simplified overview of assets, liabilities and funds Is the voluntary sector in good financial health? The aggregate balance sheet shows the value of cash, property and investments organisations hold, taking into account loans and other debt to provide a snapshot of the total net worth of the sector. Many organisations hold assets, either to […]

How has the voluntary sector’s net worth changed?

For much of the last decade the voluntary sector grew, both in terms of the number of organisations and the level of expenditure. This was reflected in the growth in net assets, which between 2000/01 and 2007/08 typically represented three times annual expenditure. This has changed following the financial crisis – in 2008/09 net assets […]

Is asset ownership in the voluntary sector widespread?

Almost 65,000 voluntary organisations own some kind of fixed asset – this is 40% of the sector. Like income, assets are concentrated in the largest organisations. Four organisations hold assets valued at more than £1 billion, and between them, they control 21% of the sector’s wealth. The top 300 organisations by assets account for just […]

How much does the voluntary sector hold as reserves?

What are reserves? There is no rule about how much charities should hold as reserves; indeed, where organisations have a reserves policy, they may not be able to generate surpluses in order to implement it. The recession has again highlighted the issue, though the focus of debate has shifted from whether organisations are holding too […]

What are the different types of asset that voluntary organisations hold?

Organisations hold two main classes of asset: fixed assets (£85.9 billion) and current assets (£23.1 billion). Fixed assets include tangible fixed assets – the buildings and equipment owned by organisations to enable them to fulfil their mission, and investment assets (such as shareholdings or investment property), which organisations hold to generate income. Three-quarters (75%) of […]

How many voluntary organisations own buildings and equipment?

We estimate that over 48,000 organisations hold some form of tangible fixed asset: 30% of the sector. Ownership rates are highest amongst the largest organisations: around 90% of major and large charities own some form of property, in contrast to only 18% of micro organisations.

Who owns buildings and equipment?

The voluntary sector’s holdings of tangible fixed assets – buildings and equipment with a substantial value – were worth £21.2 billion in 2009/10. This only includes property held for charitable purposes, and is thus an underestimate which excludes the value of investment property. The average value of tangible fixed assets is £438,000. Almost a third […]

What are the voluntary sector’s liabilities?

Voluntary organisations carry both short and long-term liabilities on their balance sheet, with the largest organisations in particular also carrying provisions for future liabilities. These are primarily for pension fund commitments. Liabilities are valued at £18.9 billion in total, nearly half of which (45%) are long-term in nature.

How much is the voluntary sector borrowing?

What are the recent changes in social finance and investment? The social finance market within the UK, whilst remaining relatively small, is becoming an increasingly discussed and important part of the funding mix for civil society. The launch of Big Society Capital marks the realisation of an ambition held for some time to reinvest  unclaimed assets into […]

Is the voluntary sector a significant investor?

Although much of the wealth invested by the voluntary sector is concentrated in a small number of organisations, the returns generated from investments are crucial to endowed charities and grant-making organisations and the many smaller charities that rely on grants to fund their work. How much are the voluntary sector’s investments worth? The sector’s investment assets […]

How many people work in the voluntary sector?

Analysis of the Labour Force Survey (LFS) estimates that in 2010, there were 765,000 people employed in the UK voluntary sector. Between 2001 and 2010 the voluntary sector workforce increased by two-fifths (40%). This represents an increase of 219,000 employees. Between 2002 and 2008 there was a steady increase in staff of between 1.7% and […]

What impact has the recession had on employment in the voluntary sector?

During the 2009 recession, employment levels within the voluntary sector were still increasing from 668,000 paid staff in 2008 to 765,000 in 2010, an increase of 14.6%. In contrast during the same time period, the public sector workforce stayed relatively static growing at just 1%, whilst the private sector workforce decreased by 3.6% (LFS). Latest […]

Who works in the voluntary sector?

In 2010, over half a million women (522,000) were employed in the voluntary sector alongside nearly one-quarter of a million men (244,000). More than two-thirds (68%) of the voluntary sector workforce are women which compares with the public sector (64%) but contrasts with the private sector (39%) (LFS). Whilst the overall numbers of men and […]

Where are voluntary sector staff located?

Just under one-third (32%) of the voluntary sector workforce lived in London and the South-East in 2010. The private and public sectors were also concentrated in these regions but to a lesser extent (28% and 24% respectively). The South-West and Scotland also had a high proportion of voluntary sector employees (11% each). Within the North-East, […]

What type of work is undertaken in the voluntary sector?

Analysis of the LFS estimates that in 2010, more than half (57%) of the voluntary sector workforce were employed in ‘health and social work’, equating to 437,000 people. Within this, more than one-third (37%) of the sector’s workforce, amounting to 281,000 people, were employed in ‘social work activities without accommodation’. Voluntary sector employees account for […]

How secure are jobs in the voluntary sector?

Analysis of the LFS estimates that in 2010, just over nine out of ten (91%) voluntary sector employees were on permanent contracts. Both the private and public sectors had a higher proportion of employees on permanent contracts (95% and 92% respectively). More than six in every ten (62%) temporary workers within the voluntary sector were […]

What skills are required in the voluntary sector?

Voluntary sector employees were highly qualified with more than one-third (37%) holding a degree level qualification or higher. This is slightly lower than employees within the public sector (40%) but higher than employees within the private sector (21%). Overall more than seven in every ten (73%) voluntary sector employees held an A Level qualification, its […]

What training opportunities are there in the voluntary sector?

The majority of voluntary organisations (56%) provided both on-the-job and off-the-job training in their organisation however just under one-fifth (18%) provided no training at all. Over half (59%) of all voluntary sector employers that had provided training over the last year train staff of all grades, however managers are significantly more likely to receive training […]

What are working patterns like in the voluntary sector?

In 2010, 288,000 people were working part-time within the voluntary sector, amounting to 38% of the sector’s workforce. In contrast 30% of the public sector and 25% of the private sector were employed part-time. Whilst the number of people working part-time in the voluntary sector has increased by 87,000 over the last ten years (43%), […]

What is the state of pay in the voluntary sector?

Exploring gross hourly pay shows that within the voluntary sector it was £12.48, almost identical to the private sector (£12.49) but lower than in the public sector (£13.84). There was a clear difference between male and female gross hourly pay across all sectors. Men’s gross hourly pay in the voluntary sector averaged £15.25, compared to […]

How much does the voluntary sector spend on staff costs?

Expenditure on staff costs can be identified through the accounts of voluntary organisations. Staff costs cut across the range of expenditure categories within the accounts as organisations employ staff to undertake a range of activities, from income generation to service provision. Staff costs can include: the costs of employing staff who work for the charity […]

How many people regularly volunteer in the UK?

During 2010/11, 39% of adults in England said that they had volunteered formally at least once in the previous 12 months, with 25% volunteering formally at least once a month. Formal volunteering means giving unpaid help through groups, clubs or organisations to benefit other people or the environment. This equates to 16.6 million people in […]

What do volunteers do?

Regular formal volunteers support different types of organisations in a range of fields. The most popular are sports and exercise (52%); hobbies, recreation, arts and social clubs (40%); and children’s education/schools (34%). By far the most common activities undertaken by regular formal volunteers are ‘organising or helping to run an activity or event’ (59%) and […]

Who volunteers in the UK?

Participation in formal volunteering differs by employment status, age, ethnicity, disability and region. People in employment are more likely to volunteer than those who are economically inactive (42% and 34% respectively). Those living in the South West (49%), South East (49%) and East of England (41%) are more likely to volunteer than those living in […]

Has the number of people volunteering changed over time?

During the beginning of the recession, evidence was beginning to suggest that volunteering levels were likely to increase during the recession with 87% of Volunteer Centres reporting an increase in the number of enquiries since the start of the recession. Latest research suggests that rates of formal volunteering declined during the recession, from 43% of […]

What would it cost the sector to replace volunteers with paid staff?

If the number of people in England who volunteer once a month (10.6 million people) were to be replaced with paid staff it would require 1.1 million full-time workers at a cost of £19.4 billion to the economy (based on the median hourly wage). If the same method was applied to the whole of the […]

How many trustees of voluntary organisations are there in the UK?

What is a trustee? Charity trustees are the people who serve on the governing body of a charity. They may be known as trustees, directors, board members, governors or committee members. Trustees have, and must accept, ultimate responsibility for directing the affairs of a charity, and ensuring that it is solvent, well-run, and meeting the […]








This Almanac is based on data from a wide range of sources. Due to the number of civil society areas covered and the variety of methods used, only a brief outline of the methodology can be given here. Voluntary sector Voluntary sector definition As in previous Almanacs, the general charities definition is used within this […]


Balance sheet A summary of the assets and liabilities of an organisation at a particular date, usually the end of the financial year. Benevolent societies Societies established for charitable purposes. Benefits must be distributed wider than their members. Capital expenditure Expenditure on equipment or buildings. Charitable activities The activities that charities undertake to provide public […]

Acronyms and abbreviations

ACF Association of Charitable Foundations AMRC Association of Medical Research Charities ATU Asset Transfer Unit BIS Department for Business, Innovation and Skills BLF Big Lottery Fund BSA Building Societies Association CAF Charities Aid Foundation CASC Community Amateur Sports Club CDDA Centre for Data Digitisation and Analysis CEO Chief Executive Officer CIC Community Interest Company CIO […]

The authors

Jenny Clark manages NCVO’s quantitative research programme and leads NCVO’s annual UK Civil Society Almanac programme and research exploring the voluntary sector’s workforce. Previously Jenny managed the UK Workforce Hub and NCVO’s workforce research programme. Jenny has an MSc with distinction in Advanced Social Research Methods and Statistics from City University and has completed an in-depth […]


Our database of charities has been developed in partnership with, and funding for data entry from, the Third Sector Research Centre (TSRC). This data forms the basis of our analysis of UK general charities. TSRC acknowledges the receipt of financial support from ESRC, the Office for Civil Society, and the Barrow Cadbury Trust. The sampling frame for data capture was designed in consultation […]